Published: March 29, 2012
"Collage in Russia. The twentieth century "- painting, drawing, sculpture, applied arts
December 22 in the Benois Wing of the State Russian Museum opens an exhibition of "Collage in Russia. The twentieth century. " The exhibition includes 400 paintings, drawings, sculpture, applied arts (fabric).
The exhibition illustrates the history is not a collage, she has to consider its own version of one of the brightest areas of twentieth century art, because it is the technique of collage were associated with the fundamental problem of plastic - the texture and shape, plane and space, that has provided a truly revolutionary changes in the fine art of the last century . But the most important thing is that the collage of thinking provoked by the rhythms of life metropolises of the twentieth century, the most adequate to meet the "break" the consciousness of modern man.
Collage (collage - bonding or gluing) is known for a long time, but first, as a rule, it existed as a technical trick applied in advertising, postcards, magazine illustrations, posters, or as a dilettante playing at home albums.
In the early emergence of a new kind of art the artists differentiated between two points: papiers colles - paper labels on paper (application), and collage - a painting incorporating the real objects. Today the two are united, and the definition of "collage" is applied to any work on the plane with the inclusion of "foreign" material. Newspapers and wallpaper, construction paper and lace, silk, and elm, foil and glass beads, mirrors and pieces of wood, metal plates and cords - everything was in motion. Items not so much depicted as directly involved in the picture. Glued, sewed, sewn, welded. A collage made it possible to combine reality and imagination, so a special fondness for this technique entertained artists involved in the Dada and different versions of international constructivism and surrealism.
In 1912 V.Matveys formulated two basic principles of modern art: the principle and the principle of free random creativity. Playing with form, the construction works on the principle of free or random organization of art elements created conditions for the flourishing of a collage.
The common date of collage in the European and Russian art - 1912, year of birth, "Still Life with wicker chairs" by Pablo Picasso, where the oval picture frame instead of the baguette round braided gold edging, and the surface of furniture, "depicts" a piece of oilcloth pasted. But in practice, Cubist collage was, as a rule, an additional element of the painting or graphic works, and had not acquired an independent significance.
In the first Russian art collage is considered to be works of Lentulov: panel "Moscow" (1913), in which the artist used the stickers, paper, and "Basil" (1913), the label of the foil. In March of 1915 in Petrograd V.Tatlin showed "pictorial relief" on the first Futurist exhibition of paintings of "A Streetcar Named As". After a month in Moscow at the "Exhibition of paintings" M. Larionov, A. Morgunov, Mayakovsky used the real thing, bringing an illusory space plane in the picture real. Famous Reliefs and angular kontrrelefy Tatlin's Futurist exhibition appeared at the "shop" in March 1916. L.Bruni, I.Klyun, V.Pestel, L.Popova, S.Dymshits-Fat showed the reliefs in this exhibition and the "plastic art," Alexander Rodchenko - collages, still-lifes of the wallpaper.
But even earlier, in 1901 and 1904 figures Vrubel's use stickers to create a more three-dimensional image, and the "Self-Portrait" 1905-06's pasted paper cigarette. In those same years I.Efimov used gold foil, and colored paper in his graphic works.
Collage technique became the starting point for the birth of many new kinds of art: montage, assemblage, art object. For example, a photo montage late 1910s - early 1920s can be regarded as a type of collage, despite the existing differences between them specified. Photomontage technique appeared almost simultaneously with the very invention of photography, but in the history of great art montage gets a little bit later than the collage. As stressed by many researchers, the inclusion of photomontage in the field of professional art was largely due to the assimilation of the principles developed in the collage.
Throughout the century, collage has found an independent artistic language, which, like any living language, had the ability to self-development. An initial gesture of bonding is no longer enough, especially for the artists themselves. Collage became the essence of today's consciousness, mentality, in the way of "absorption" of information. The image is created, composed not only by bonding many overlapping, layering, and co-comparison of experiences, information, objects or their fragments.
Collage was a very convenient language for the completeness of statements of artists of the second half of the twentieth century, thanks to new ideas about the properties of an art form: its mobility, freedom, its metaphorical, associative containers. That collage artists instilled respect to the subject matter itself. But it gave rise to the paradox of collages: the "objectification of the surface of the" product as a whole often becomes groundless.
The project is an experimental exhibition of the Russian Museum, dedicated to the art of collage emerged in the context of long-term studies of stylistic trends in the domestic art of the twentieth century. Exposure and implemented on the basis of the book provide an opportunity to gather as many examples of pieces created by creative efforts of artists of the last century, and add their own picture of them. With the exhibition space, which consists of various sections and converted into an analogue of the collage, the exhibition focuses on the most important from a historical perspective of artistic discoveries in different kinds of Russian art of the twentieth century
"Classical" section of the exhibition brings together works that dominated the artistic experience, mastered the fine art of the early twentieth century. Introduction to the picturesque tissue fragments from newspapers, magazines, maps, or scraps of old lace illustrate the long tradition. Here the viewer will meet with the works of Malevich, P.Galadzheva, N.Goncharova, A.Lentulov, A.Kuprin, I.Puni, P.Mituricha, V.Volkov, A.Brusilovsky and others.
"Materials Selection" appeared in the works V.Tatlina V. Lebedev, Yu.Vasnetsova, S.Dymshits-employment. Contemporary artists continue to a wide range of experiments, which started in the 1920s.
One of the fundamental concepts of plastic art is the texture. "The material - the mother of invoices - wrote V.Matveys. - Each new material appeared to be new elements that make up the new infinite series of textures. " Collage, in essence, is a kind of "cooking materials," the amazing imagination of the viewer. The exhibition provides an opportunity to get acquainted with the diversity of the artists involved materials (proizvedeniya. V.Duhovlinova, A.Kozhina, V.Davydova, A.Grositskogo, V.Orlova and many others).
The section on decoupage, demonstrates the fine art search form by using the art cutting and gluing on a plane. Cut with scissors (a new tool, has acquired such great popularity in the art of the twentieth century), renowned Rozanova O. and A. Matisse, resulted in a myriad of original plastic ideas. In this room are working A.Kruchenyha, V.Sterligova, G.Zubkova, M.Tserusha and others.
Collages of fabrics (and fabrics), a kind of "rag paintings", which are used in the creation, on the one hand, the hand crafted materials, on the other hand, the most unexpected things (such as polyethylene), are completely independent works, full weight not only technical, but also elegant, art-justified and wonderful expressive figurative findings (work S.Azarhi, M.Azizyan, N.Everling and others).
Radical experiments and the search for new methods of forming the mid-1910s - early 1920s, became a powerful irrigation for the native art of the 1960s - and especially the 1990s. Assemblages V.Sidura the late 1960s - early 1970s and later in time (1980s - early 1990s) of V.Voinova, D.Kaminkera, O.Zhogina, G.Grigoryana, A.Mitlyanskoy, based on different technical ways of connecting the sculptural volume, heterogeneous subject "remains," domestic scraps of evidence, and take a bygone life. Nevertheless, all these works have much in common.
Relevant in contemporary art practice and is a type of collage, as the spatial design. In recent years many artists have experimented not only with the space, but with the light. This kind of collage presented at the exhibition, and suspended structures I.Govorkova G.Molchanova, spatial compositions M.Aleksandrovoy, V.Apuhtinoy, E.Gora, I.Grinchel, E. Gubanova and other artists actively use in their work of light and shade, and light.
Rounding out the exhibit new technologies - computer collage, combined with its forerunner, is widely known photomontage, born in search of the avant-garde of the 1920s. The exhibition includes the most significant works, allowing to emphasize agreement on the principles of collage worldview that distinguishes the work of artists, separated by decades (groups of AES, V.Pushnitskiy, WOKUD and others).
Information sponsor of the Russian Museum - Gallery "Museums of Russia".
General information partner of the Russian Museum - the radio station "Echo of Moscow to St. Petersburg."
December 21, 2005
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