Published: July 7, 2012
(English picture, painting, canvas, fr. Tableau, toile, it. Bild, Gemalde), canvas, fabric - finished easel paintings, which has independent significance and is intended for concentrated perception, more or less isolated from the environment. In contrast, studies and sketches, the picture - the completed work and consistently embodies the author's intent, in contrast to the monumental painting, decorative painting, miniatures, panels K is a closed world, not subject to any ensemble, designed to separate the viewer's attention.
Nevertheless, in the history of painting is not just a picture as part of a complex of functional and decorative, from which it is released later (portraits in funerary complexes of the Hellenistic Egypt;
PICTURE altars in 14-16 centuries. C. in a complex frame, decorating the church and palace interiors of 17-18 centuries. Solid "tapestry" palaces K. hanging this time.)
On the basis of paintings (oil on canvas, wood or metal board, plywood, cardboard, pressed board, plastic, paper, silk, etc.) are applied primer and paint layer. The European type of picture requires a frame, which separates the world of painting from the outside world, usually as a stretcher, constituting a rigid structure with canvas.
Far-type PICTURES retains the traditional form of free hanging scroll unfolded (horizontal or vertical).
Films that originated in classical antiquity and with 14-15 cc. re-established in Europe (with the turn of 17-18 centuries. in Russian) art, has become the most developed and complex (and at the same time the most popular) form of art with the most feature-rich. K. biggest artists - top art, reflecting the highest level of aesthetic ideals, philosophical, and social attitudes, understanding and figurative embodiment of peace, compositional, coloristic, and other means of expression. The most complex and profound ideas, a reflection of the diverse aspects of life, ideas and beliefs, and require special methods of preparation of the picture (sketch, sketch, Study), and consistent work on it. Famous paintings, created a long (sometimes years) time. Paintings that have become public event, PICTURES, reflecting the fundamental problems of historical and spiritual life, embodied the ideals which have entered the consciousness of mankind (eg, "Sistine Madonna" by Raphael, 1515-1519, "The Appearance of Christ to the people," Alexander Ivanov, 1837 - 1857; triptych PD Corina "Alexander Nevsky," 1942 - 1943).
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