Published: July 7, 2012
(Fr. classicisme, Eng. Classicism, it. Klassizismus) - art direction and style of European art of the early 17th. The 19th century. Arising in an era in Europe, the addition of powerful centralized national monarchies. Recognizing the supreme example of ancient art, and drawing on the traditions of the High Renaissance, classical art reflects the ideas of the harmonic structure of society (based on eternal and immutable laws of reason), the subordination of individual interests of the nation, states of consciousness and the recognition of all-conquering debt principal virtue of the citizen.
The conflicts of the ideal and reality, sense and reason, feeling and duty, the individual and society indication of the complexity, the internal tensions of classical art, has lost the natural harmony of Renaissance culture.
It should be distinguished by their different social and cultural nature: 1) the classicism of the 17th century., Formed together with the strengthening of the French absolutist state, and 2) the classicism of the 2nd floor. The 18th century. (Neoclassicism), formed in the era of the preparation of the French Revolution in 1789
Classicism of the 17th century. inherent normativity of aesthetics, the sublime abstraction artistic ideals, idealized images of nature and of man, often refusing to transfer the individual and household in the name of greatness and heroism, artistic forms of classicism inherent in a strict balance, sharpness, clarity and harmony of the plastic. Outstanding artists
Classicism of the 17th century. were in the painting - Nicolas Poussin, Claude Lorrain, Charles Le Brun, in architecture - Claude Perrault, the creators of the palace and park ensemble in Versailles, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, and André Le Nôtre.
The classicism of the 2nd floor. The 18th century., The largest of which was representative of the painter Jacques-Louis David, spoke to citizenship, the republican ideas of antiquity, to images of courageous fighters against tyranny, claimed in the art of human rights, his world of feelings and emotions. The architecture (Jacques Ange Gabriel, Nicolas Ledoux) triumphed consistency and simplicity of composition, inspired by antique designs.
Late classical era of the Napoleonic Empire (Empire) acquires the features of pomp and splendor, as expressed in architecture and applied arts of the 1st quarter. The 19th century. (Charles Percier, Pierre Fontaine).
Original and a brilliant version of classicism 2nd floor. 18 - the beginning. The 19th century. was created in Russia in architectural ensembles and structures VI Bazhenov, M. Kazakov, Giacomo Quarenghi, A. Zakharov, C. Rossi, A. J. Voronikhin, in sculpture, M.I. Kozlovsky FF Shchedrin, I. Martos. In Russian paintings K. manifested most clearly in the works of Losenko, G.I. Ugryumova, in the early scenes A, Ivanov, portraiture in the late Vladimir Borovikovsky, in landscapes F.M. Matveev.
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