Published: July 7, 2012
(From Lat. Constructio - construction) - the direction in Soviet art of the 1920s.,, Which arose before the revolution of 1917 under the late "constructive" stage of the Art Nouveau style. Since 1921, when a working group of Constructivists (AM Hahn, K. Medunetsky, Rodchenko, V. p. Stepanov, VA, GA Stenberg Stenberg) CONSTRUCTIVISM active manifested in the architecture, design, for a design and theater arts, painting and drawing, art, books and posters, in the architectural and artistic theory. In the first years of Soviet power
CONSTRUCTIVISM formed in close co-creativity of architects and designers with leftist tendencies in the visual arts (Suprematism, Cubism, Futurism). The formal-aesthetic searches of Kazimir Malevich, Vladimir Tatlin, El Lissitzky, LM, Rodchenko emerged at the intersection of art, architecture and design.
Proponents CONSTRUCTIVISM sought revolutionary transformation of life, environmental design of public life, putting forward the slogan of the production of art and its introduction into the life and way of life, proclaimed the new aesthetic ideals of simplicity, democratic, utilitarian expediency of the objective world. Bowing to the possibilities of new technology, the Constructivists have studied and promoted the aesthetic features of such materials as metal, glass, concrete, wood.
The principles of functionality, modernity, concise expression of the subject, its convenience for mass production of machine made by the theorists of industrial arts (Osip Brik, AM Hahn, NM Tarabukin), gave impetus to the development of design - the art of designing a new type of furniture (Rodchenko, brethren, VA, LA and AA Vesnin Vesnin), fittings, utensils (Rodchenko, A. M. Hahn), the creation of new tissues (V. F . Stepanova, Popova, LS), workwear (V. Tatlin, Stepanova VF). K. has played a major role in the development of a poster (photo montages brothers of VA and GA Stenbergs, G. Klucis), design book (of Ghana, AM and LM Lissitzky). Constructivist theater - a "machine" for the actors (structures AA Vesnina, L. Popova, VF Stepanova for the productions of Vsevolod Meyerhold and Tairov AY). CONSTRUCTIVISM ideas were embodied in graphics and painting of the 1920s. representatives of the creative union of OST (AA Deineka, Y. Pimenov).
The creative concept of constructivism in architecture claimed functionality, design, technological feasibility of architectural form. These principles have been implemented in the theory and practice Vesnin brothers, M. J. Ginsburg, KS Melnikov, IA Golosov, I. Leonidov, Alexander Nikolsky. In 1925 was established creative organization OCA, whose members have developed a functional method of designing buildings and urban complexes, introduced new principles of planning and reconstruction of villages, towns, industrial sites, housing estates, public and cultural buildings (palaces of labor, home of the Soviets, the house- communes, workers' clubs, kitchens). If the first was dominated by an array of structures constructivists walls, then to the beginning. 1930s. Glass has been replacing the walls, roofs were built with flat, asymmetrical composition of buildings deployed horizontally. Public recognition of the many buildings were constructivists: KS Melnikov House in Moscow (1927-1929), built Vesnin brothers - Palace of Culture ZIL Moscow (1930-1934) and Dnieper (1932), a drama theater in Rostov-on-Don ( 1930-1935, architects, VA Shuko, V. Gelfreich). At the turn of 1920-1930's. there has been a gap between creative ideas and possibilities K. implement them, which led to the dominance of simplified uniform structures and products. Gradually recovering in the course of architecture and decorative arts, which focused on the use of the past. Functionalism and purely utilitarian architecture K. subjected to severe criticism. By the mid-1930s. CONSTRUCTIVISM giving way to neo ("proletarian classics").
The ideas of constructivism, brewing in the pre-revolutionary Russian avant-garde directions, carrying the features of social utopia: total artistic design of the new environment was conceived as a revolution in social life and people's minds. Similar trends emerged in the culture of Germany, the Netherlands, Poland and Czechoslovakia. In Western literature the concept CONSTRUCTIVISM acquired a broad meaning: it includes all the manifestations of aesthetics technicism: geometric abstraction, Op art, kinetic art, minimal art.
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