By JenKiriakos


Published: July 7, 2012

Woodcuts

(From the Greek. Xylon - wood and grapho - write, draw) - woodcut. K. - one of the most common types of engraving: printing plate (clich) prints a way to high printing - from a flat surface of wooden boards, covered with paint, not penetrating into the grooves cut between the elements of the image. There are two types of Woodcut: Edged (dropped, it. Hoizschnitt, Eng. Woodcut) and socket (german Hoizstich, Eng. Wood engraving). C. Cutting is performed on the longitudinal cutting boards made of soft wood (pear, the Far East - cherry): drawing lines and spots are cut with knives and chisels, and in between the tree is chosen chisel. Trim K. inherent generality of the figure, the contrasts of black and white, heightened emotional tone and vivid graphic quality print. Woodcut socket is performed on cross-cutting boards made of hard wood (tree, boxwood) graver slotted thin strokes that go in the white imprint, a combination of strokes can create tons of different saturation {tone engraving), reproduce tonal painting and drawing. Cutting Woodcut appeared in China (referred to 6.): Illustration, sketch, splints. Since the 17th century. Japan created picture books, calendars, greeting cards, prints secular (the famous master of 17-19 cc. - Kitagawa Utamaro, Tesyusay Syaraku, Katsushika Hokusai, Ando Hiroshige). Woodcuts in Europe have long served to illustrate printed books, engravings popular prints, playing cards, prints, appeared at the turn of the 14-15 centuries. in Germany, the Czech Republic and Austria. The greatest master Albrecht Durer woodcut was in Germany. In the 16th century. was developed in Italy and Germany Color Woodcut (kyaroskuro) in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, there was a book woodcuts, associated with the activity Skarina, Ivan Fedorov, Petr Mstislavets. In European art, 18-19 cc. the role of woodcuts falls, but machined woodcut technique, invented in the 1780s. Englishman Thomas Buick, gives her a second wind, and the use of the illustrations.

At the turn of the 19-20 centuries. increasing interest in the traditions of the woodcuts in connection with the birth of Art Nouveau (William Morris in England, Paul Gauguin in French) has developed an elegant decorative style prints, illustrations and vignettes (Felix Vallotton Swiss, William Nicholson and Gordon Craig in England, AP Ostroumov-Lebedeva, VD Falileev in Russia). In the 20th century. For many artists woodcuts characterized publicistic, expression, contrast stains, appeal to the traditions of folk K. (France Mazereel in Belgium, Kathe Kollwitz in Germany, Rockwell Kent in the U.S.). Especially hard, sharp contrast distinguishes Woodcuts close to expressionism masters (Edvard Munch, Norway, Emil Nolde in Germany, Poland Tadeusz Kulisiewicz). In Russia during the Soviet period, large master woodcuts - PA Shillingovsky, N. KUPREYANOV, AI Kravchenko, V. A. Tabor, PY Pavlinov, N. Piskarev, AD Goncharov , MI Peaks, F. D. Konstantinov. Formed a kind of school in the Ukraine (VI Kasiyan), Lithuania (Jonas Kuzminskis).






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