Published: July 22, 2012
(ит. manierismo, from maniera - a manner, reception, art handwriting) - a current in the European art of 16 century. The term is entered into scientific use by V. Veysbakh (1919), V. Friedlander (1925) and N. Pevzner (1925).
The first researchers MANNERISM defined it as the anti-classical current developed in Italy about 1520 and developing up to the 1590th. The first generation of manyerist (Iacopo Pontormo, Giovanni Battista Rosso, Domenico Bekkafumi, Raphael's pupils) endured deep crisis of humanistic Renaissance attitude that found expression in their drama protest against graphic principles of "classical style" the Florentine-Roman High Renaissance, in search of new, often extravagant forms of expression distraught, doubled, sometimes irrational perception of the world. In works of theorists of M - J. B. Armenini (1587), J. P. Lomazzo (1590), F. Tsukkaro (1607) - the fundamental thesis resisting to the Renaissance views of art, is the provision on "internal idea", or "internal drawing" (which source the imagination, the personal creative beginning of the master is) as to a basis of an artistic image. "Manner" ("a fine manner") as the sum of certain stylistic receptions becomes external expression of this "internal idea". Into style system "manery" enter as the "anti-classical" beginnings - any elongation of proportions of human figures, irrationality of the spatial and color relations, light, the difficult, serpentine rhythm penetrating poses, movements, composite drawing, and canonization of difficult formulas of the movement obtained at Raphael and Michelangelo. In the 1540th in Italy MANNERISM turns into the wide current which has captured painting, a sculpture and the architecture, affirmed mainly in the centers of court culture.
The mannerist current develops also in art of some other the European countries. At the same time MANNERISM is connected by difficult relationship from 16 century existing in the European culture powerful layers of the Renaissance traditions (the Venetian Late Renaissance, the French Renaissance); between them there is common ground - complexity of attitude, special nature of secular court lines, the use of difficult formulas of movement, etc. Many modern historians therefore are inclined to give to the term "M" broad sense, extending it to a considerable part of art of 16 century from Pontormo and Parmigianino to Tintoretto and El Greco; A.Hauzer (1965) suggested to allocate in the history of the European culture as a separate independent stage time between 1520/1540 and the 1590th, having designated it the term "MANNERISM". At the same time there is also other point of view - to consider MANNERISM as one of currents of the period of the Late Renaissance.
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