Published: April 2, 2012

ENGRAVINGS

Engravings (Fr. gravure, of graver - cut out) - the kind of graphics, including works (prints), performed by printing off the board, treated in various ways engraving. In the past, the actual engraving, the technical part of the work is often done by specialized on her masters engravers. G. is the original, if it is full (including all of the processing boards), executed by the artist himself. Reproduction, G. (introduced in Europe in 15-16 centuries). Plays usually painting (with varying degrees of completeness and accuracy). In the old G. found the following brief notation of performers: the author played the original - pinx (pinxit) - "wrote depicted", the painter - del (delineavit) - "painted", for the engraver - sc (sculp-sit) - "cut "; for the printer - imp. (Impessit) and exc (excudit) - "ottisnul, fulfilled."

By appointment Mr. divided mainly on easel (printmaking), that is designed for independent existence, and the book.

There are also various kinds of applied G., bookplate, splints, etc.

The main stages of implementation D.: Translation of the preparatory drawing from paper to the surface of the board, engraving and printing. Varieties of gravure techniques differ mainly on how to engrave, that is, drawing on the board surface indentations and irregularities with the help of metal tools or chemicals (see copperplate print. Mezzotint, soft ground, drypoint, etching, aquatint, crayon manner , dotted manner Rezervazh, Lavis, Sulphur color. Woodcut, Linocut, etc.). Basic materials G. - metal (copper, zinc, steel), wood (boxwood, palm, pear, cherry, etc.), linoleum, cardboard, in the 20th century. as plastic, acrylic. Processing gravure board made by mechanical means, with steel tools (a special knife, graver, needle, rocker, scraper, trowel, gratuar, roulette, etc.), or acid etching. Sometimes the technique is called a mechanical G. ways of handling the board (referring to the chemical methods of self-etching).

When the bulge on the surface of the treated boards comply with parts of the image in print, GA called convex, with parts of the image under the same grooves on the surface of the board called Mr. depth. G. uses chiaroscuro tone as a primary art medium: it can run fine closely spaced lines - the strokes, which are perceived by a single tone of a spot intensity.

Specific features of G. - to receive a significant number of copies, prints, ie. circulation, as well as its distinctive styling associated with working in hard materials. Complete proofs are signed by the author. In the process, sometimes executed proofs (state), which recognize the value of an artist.


By JenKiriakos



, Zeon.




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