Published: April 2, 2012

The Northern Renaissance


The periodization of the stages of development of the Renaissance in Italy and in the north of the Alps, as a rule, not the same. Common, but the conventional concept of "Northern Renaissance" (ok.1500 - between 1540 and 1580) shall apply by analogy to the Italian Renaissance in art and culture of Germany, Flanders, Northern France, the Netherlands, one of the main features of the artistic culture of these countries is its genetic linkage the art of the late Gothic. The origins of "Northern Renaissance" to be found in the late 14th and 15th centuries, in Burgundy, in the creation of working in the center of the court-Knights Late art of the sculptor Carl Slyutera painters and brothers of Limburg.

In the 15th century the dominant position among northern European art schools took Netherlandish painting: painters Jan van Eyck, Robert Campin, or Flemalsky master Rogier van der Weyden, Albert Ouvater, Dirk Bouts, Ios van Gent, Hugo van der Goes, Jacques Dare, Hans Memling, Petrus Christus, he Gertgen Sint Jans, their pictures are marked pantheistic worldview, close attention to every detail and every phenomenon of life tayaschiysya them profound symbolic meaning is the basis of the broad generalization of paintings by Pieter Brueghel the Elder and Hieronymus Bosch. Self-development were in the Dutch art of the Renaissance portrait (Antonis Mor, Dirk Barents, Jan van Skorel), landscape (Joachim Patinir), genre (Luke Leiden, Jan Sanders van Hemessen, Quinten Masseys). A peculiar phenomenon was romanizm, the master is trying to connect the artistic techniques of Italian art from the tradition of the Netherlands (Jan Gossart, Bernard van Orley, David Gerard, Adrian and Frans Floris Izenbrandt). An important milestone in the development of a realistic jet Netherlandish art was original art by artists such as Peter and Joachim Beykelar Aartsen, domestic genre paintings which reflect the images of people's attempts to monumentalization type. In Germany, the first line of the new art appeared in 1430-s (L. Moser, J. crusher, K. been a vice), and in fact the Renaissance, the art is greatly influenced by the ideas of the Reformation and the Peasants' War of 1524-1526 events, began in the late 15 and 16th centuries and was completed already in 1530-1540-s (paintings and drawings by Albrecht Durer, Matthias Grunewald, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Albrecht Altdorfer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Hans Baldunga, sculpture Rimenshneydera T., F. Stoss, A. Kraft and etc.). Cheerful and elegant style of the French Renaissance is most clearly manifested in the paintings and pencil portraits of Jean Fouquet (also known as a master of miniatures), J. and P. Clouet, Corneille de Lyon, in the classically perfect plasticity J. Goujon, in a relaxed scenic beauty and ease of architecture of the city of palaces and houses, country castles (constructions P. Lescot, F. Delorme, JA Dyuserso). The peculiar features of the refraction of the Renaissance in the arts have in England, where under the influence of working in London, H. Holbein the younger portrait formed National School (N. Hilliard), and Spain, where artists (Berruguete A., D. de Siloe, L. de Morales) was used experience of Italian painting to create your own, severe and expressive style. These or other features, some elements of Renaissance art and techniques found in the artistic culture of Croatia (work by sculptor and architect Juraj Dalmatian), Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland, Lithuania and other European countries.

The Danube School


The Danube School, the direction in painting and graphics in Southern Germany and Austria, the 1st half of the 16th century.
Special for the German Renaissance, distinguished by a pronounced national originality, creativity forms the masters of the Danube School, where he was head of Albrecht Altdorfer. In art, these artists are also visible imprint of the instability of the German artistic culture of the 10th century, largely living remnants of the past, uniting in itself new, realistically reasonable view of the world with a confused irrational ideas. At the same time masters of the Danube school still alien to the scientific interests of Durer and religious exaltation Matthias Grunewald. Freed in his work on the spiritualistic orientation of medieval art, they do not come to the glorification of the human mind and the search for a harmonic ideal. Their works created a fantastic world in which fiction and fiction are intertwined with the exact recorded his impressions of reality, mythological or biblical legend merges with the narrative genre. Late-elements co-exist with realistic findings, combined with the simplicity of quirkiness. As the most powerful works of these artists can note an inherent heightened sense of nature. They are the founders of the German landscape as an independent genre of painting, depicting people in an environment of nature or nature in its purest form.

By the Danube school include early paintings by Lucas Cranach the Elder, Albrecht Altdorfer works ("The Battle of Issus Alexander of Macedon", 1529), W. Huber and other artists other than the freedom of artistic imagination, vivid emotion, pantheistic perception of nature, forest or river landscape interest in the fairy-tale story of the legendary painting, and they stand out as a dynamic, impulsive brushwork, acute expressive figure, the intensity of the colors. Trends in Renaissance art are intertwined in the Danube school with the late Gothic tradition. Works by Durer determined the direction of the leading German Renaissance art. The influence of his pa contemporary artists, including painters of the Danube and the school was great, it has penetrated even into Italy, France. Simultaneously, Durer, and after him came a galaxy of great artists. Among them were fine sense of harmony of nature and man Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) and endowed with great strength of imagination Gothardt Neythardt Matthias, known as Matthias Grnewald (ca. 1475-1528), associated with the mystical teachings and gothic folk tradition. His work is imbued with the spirit of rebellion, or a desperate frenzy of jubilation, the high heat of emotions and painful expression is flashing, then a beating, then fading, then the flaming color and light.

Background and biographical data "Painting Galleries Planet Small Bay" prepared on the basis of the "History of Foreign Art" (ed. M.T.Kuzminoy, N.L.Maltsevoy), "Foreign Fiction Encyclopedia of Classical Art," "Great Russian Encyclopedia".

The history of the Northern Renaissance. The Art of 15th and 16th centuries. The Art of the Netherlands and Germany.

 

Albrecht Altdorfer

Hans Baldung Green
Bosch Hieronymus
Pieter Bruegel
Rogier van der Weyden
Albrecht Drer
Lucas Cranach
Hans Memling
Hans Holbein
Jan van Eyck


By JenKiriakos






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