Published: July 7, 2012

PAINTING

(Eng. painting, fr. Peinture, it. Malerei) - the form of fine arts, traditionally occupies first place in their triad (painting, sculpture, graphics). The ability to reproduce PAINTING differently shaped phenomena of life, really, what has caused the origin of the term, and firmly logged in Russian lexicon in the 18th century. ("Picturing" - to write vividly depict phenomena lifelike), determines that a substantial burden, which PAINTING is the art of depicting nature, people, wildlife, events of the modern public or private life, from the historical past, mythological images, created by the human imagination. In accordance with the substantive terms of image

PAINTING divided into genres, of which European culture during the 16-20 centuries. most developed portrait, historical genre, genre, mythological genre, battle genre, landscape, still life, animal genre. In the works

PAINTINGS uncommon blend of different genres and their elements.
As a phenomenon of world culture for thousands of years since the evolution from Paleolithic cave paintings to the latest trends in art of the 20th century., Bringing together different ethnic, cultural and religious worlds,

PAINTING does not necessarily include fine start. In this sense, the features and capabilities PAINTING realistic and "pointless" - from the decorative and ornamental to the abstract constructions are extremely diverse. Therefore, we can determine the type of painting as a visual (visually perceived), static (not changing over time), spatial art, not having (as opposed to architecture and applied arts), the direct practical application.

PAINTING differs from the sculpture with its planar (not volume) character, but on the charts - that the primary role played by color in the painting. In this case the formal differences between painting from sculpture and graphics is not absolute, since PAINTING takes a certain amount of due invoice, pasty layer and colorful collage technique: it can be monochromatic, monochrome, and may be closely related to the structure or object, often perform a variety of (albeit in itself is not utilitarian) functions as religious (in different religious systems) and the secular.

The main types of PAINTING - easel and monumental - are associated with the material, the basis (carrier plane), which is applied to the paintings. In easel painting (oils) such basis is quite strong and dense material (canvas stretched on a frame, a wooden board, a sheet of cardboard, metal, etc., are usually coated with a special primer), which allows to freely move the work: hanging on the walls, on the exhibit exhibitions, build museums and private collections. As a rule, works of easel painting designed to display and perception in interiors. An important attribute of the picture is the frame, giving the picturesque image of perfection and allows the perception of pictorial illusion clearly limit the space of real-world pictures - interior space. "Bearer" of monumental painting is fixed architecture framework (wall, arch, pillar of the building) or a special design. The monumental painting can be designed for interiors, facades, public urban space, the external environment. Linked to this is the need of choice for monumental painting stronger (than easel painting) and the development of materials technology, eliminating the burn-in light, blurring of precipitation and other changes in the environment PAINTING (stone, ceramic, or smalt mosaic, stained-glass window of stained glass, fresco and other kinds of painting). The product of monumental painting can not be separated from its base (wall bearing structure) is an important task of the artist is to achieve synthesis of the arts - a harmonious unity, logical connection, the unity of style and imagery of monumental painting and architecture. PAINTING basis may be subject, in this case, as a rule, it dominates a decorative top. Special types of PAINTING - iconography, miniature. Decoration painting (Decoration setting for movies and theater), the diorama and the panorama.

PAINTING has a wide range of expressive means, among which the most important - composition, drawing and color (color). Paintings can be used as the shades of one color tone, and a system of interrelated colors (colorful gamma), immutable local color or shades of color (halftones, transitions, colors), showing differences in the coverage of items in their position in space and the environment; reflections reveal the interaction differently colored objects, the unity of beautiful colors makes it possible to combine objects with the environment, Valerie shows subtle shades arising from the interaction of objects and environments. In the direct study of nature is based reproduction of natural sunlight and air (open air). Expressive PAINTING achieved and the nature of the stroke, treatment with colorful surface (texture). Building volume and space in painting is associated with linear and aerial perspective, the cut-off and volume, using the constructive qualities of drawing and spatial properties of warm and cool colors. Paintings can be a single-layer (alla prima), and multi-layered, having transparent or translucent layers underpainting and glazes.

The main types of technical PAINTING: oil painting (paint on vegetable oil as a binder), tempera (paint natural and artificial emulsions), glue painting, wax painting (including encaustic), painting with water colors on wet plaster (fresco) and dry (and Secco), enamel, ceramic painting, silicate, synthetic paints, mosaics, stained glass, watercolor, gouache, pastel, ink used for execution of a painting and graphic works.

By tradition, the main tools are the brush PAINTING varying width and softness, but are also used palette knife and a special device for spraying liquid paint (airbrush) and for transferring images onto canvas photochemically.

PAINTING, like any art form, has an emotional impact on viewers to form their spiritual culture and worldview.


By JenKiriakos  768 Views




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