Published: July 31, 2019

Herman Max Pekhstein (1881-1955) - expressionist, artist of the berlin Session

PHOTO M. Pechstein in the workshop, in his house in Berlin-Zehlendorf, 1915 (700x574, 136Kb)

Max Pechstein (1881-1955) in his workshop. Berlin 1915
 

Hermann Max Pechstein

  • Date of birth: December 31, 1881 ; Zwickau, Germany 
  • Date of death: June 29, 1955 ; West Berlin, Germany 
  • Nationality: German
  • Direction: Expressionism
  • School / group: Die Brücke, Berlin Secession, Beehive, Degenerative Art
  • Sphere: painting, print
  • Experienced: Vincent Van Gogh, Henri Matisse, Fauves (Wild)
 
 
Hermann Max Pechstein was born on December 31, 1881 in the hometown of Schumann, Zwickau, in a family of eight, a master of a textile factory. Pechstein was diversified. In 1896 he began to learn the art of the artist-decorator. Four years later, having passed the master's exam, in 1900 he moved to Dresden and until 1903 he studied at the Dresden School of Applied Art. In 1902, in the School, participating in competitions in six subjects, received five first prizes and one second. He is offered to remain a teacher at the School, but he refuses and decides to enter the Academy of Arts.
 
In the Dresden Academy of Arts, he improved his skills in the workshop of Otto Gussman (1869-1926). In 1905, he visited the exhibition with the works of Van Gogh in Dresden. In 1906, Pechstein met the artists Ernst Kirchner and Erich Heckel. In 1907, with Kirchner makes a trip to Goppeln near Dresden, where he writes sketches. Soon, Kirchner and Heckel invite him to the group they founded, Most (Die Brücke). Pechstein is the only member of the group who received an academic art education. In the same year, Pechstein graduated from the Dresden Academy with the highest award, the State Prize of Saxony.
 
In the autumn of 1907, this allowed him to travel to Italy. At the Dresden Academy of Arts, he improved his skills in the workshop of Otto Gussmann (1869-1926). In 1906, Pechstein met the artists Ernst Kirchner and Erich Heckel. In 1907, with Kirchner makes a trip to Goppeln near Dresden, where he writes sketches. Soon, Kirchner and Heckel invite him to the group they founded, Most (Die Brücke). Pechstein is the only member of the group who received an academic art education. In the same year, Pechstein graduated from the Dresden Academy with the highest award, the State Prize of Saxony.
 
1906 Source. (Die Quelle) X, m. 102x112 Auk Ket Kunst 2012. € 341,600 $ 392,839 (700x653, 210Kb)

Source (Die Quelle). 1906. Oil on canvas. 102x112 cm. The picture was sold for 431.600 euro at the auction 
Ketterer Kunst. Munich, 2012. 

 
In the autumn of 1907, this allowed him to travel to Italy, where he visited Florence, Ravenna and Rome. In 1908, on his way back to Germany, he stopped for six months in Paris, where the works of Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin and Henri Matisse made a huge impression on him. In Paris, he comes close to fauvist artists and communicates with Kes van Dongen, Henri Charles Mangun and Albert Marquet especially often.
 
1906 Old houses A collapsed house »Х м 37х45 sm. Auk Ket Kunst 2011. € 323,300 $ 371.795 (700x583, 217Kb)

Old houses, or a collapsed house. 1906
Herman Max Pekhstein (1881-1955) - expressionist, artist of the berlin Session.

Houses. 1907-1909 
1907 River Landscape (700x546, 238Kb)

River landscape. 1907. Oil on canvas. Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany. 
1908 View of the Seine with a bridge and a barge (700x486, 119Kb)

View of the Seine with a bridge and a barge. Paris, 1908. 
1908 Bridge over the Seine with a small steamer National Gal Australia (700x587, 276Kb)

Bridge over the Seine with a small steamer. Paris, 1908  National Gallery of Australia, Canberra. 
 

1909 Mann und Weib, Col. 59,5 x 44,4 cm lit Auk Ket Kunst 2013. € 117,120 $ 134,688 (546x700, 180Kb)

Husband and wife. 1909 Color lithograph. 59.5x44.4 cm. Sold at auction by Ketterer Kunst,
Munich 2013 for € 117,120 / $ 134,688. 

1908 In the box. Lithograph (650x515, 269Kb)

In the bed. 1908 Lithograph. 
Herman Max Pekhstein (1881-1955) - expressionist, artist of the berlin Session.

Young girls (Jeunes Filles). 1908. Oil on canvas. 46x55,5 cm. Private collection. 

1908 Female portrait (581x700, 153Kb)

Female portrait. 1908. Oil on canvas. 46 x 55 cm. 
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra. 

1908 portrait of Frau Kurt

Portrait of Frau Kurt. 1908 
1908 Young Girl »The Most Museum, Berlin (516x700, 180Kb)

Max Pechstein. Young girl 1908. Oil on canvas. 65.5 x 50.5 cm. 
Museum of the Most group, Berlin. 
PHOTOS Kirchner - 1908 Portrait of a woman in a white dress (700x695, 318Kb)

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938). Portrait of a woman in a white dress. 1908. 
Oil on canvas. 113.5х114.5 cm. Private collection.


In the spring of 1908, due to the receipt of an order from Berlin-based architect Max Kurt, Pechstein left Paris and the first of the artists of the members of the Most group moved to Berlin, where the Berlin Secession joins the union. In January 1909, Ernst Kirchner visited him in Berlin. 
 
They work together on one model chosen by Pechstein, probably in accordance with the beauty ideal adopted in the atelier of Charles Mangen and Albert Marquet on Bursault Street in Paris. In the subsequent works of Kirchner, this model no longer appears. Pechstein's painting "Young Girl" is written in a free manner. This work is the most “fauvist” of all created by the artists of “Most”. In 1909 it was of great importance for the formation of the creative style of the artists of this group. 
 
In 1908 in Paris, Van Dongen introduces Pechstein to the works of Henri Matisse: the direct influence of the French master is noticeable in Pechstein's paintings from 1911-1912. Combining bright colors, distributed on extensive planes, the artist expresses the pristine power of his temperament. The colorful image of the world is saturated with meaning, but is devoid of any symbolic or mythological background. His best works were written in the summer of 1910 on the shores of the Moritzburg lakes in the vicinity of Dresden, where Pechstein was with Kirchner and Heckel, after which he and Heckel went to Dangast to see Schmidt-Rottluff. But the works created in the following years in Nida on the Curonian Spit of the Baltic Sea coast (now Lithuania), where Pechstein since 1909 began to come to work every summer (for example, a series of paintings depicting bathers in the dunes), 

Max Pechstein. The girl in red with an umbrella. 1909

Max Pechstein. The girl in red with an umbrella. 1909

1909 Curonian Bride Х m 55.9 x 51.7 cm. ES 2 (631x700, 188Kb)

Curonian Bride. 1909 Oil on canvas. 55.9x51.7 cm. Private collection. 

1909 Head of a Woman (Marcelino) (536x700, 154Kb)

Head of a woman (Marcelino). 1909 

1909 Girl with a book. 99

Girl with a book. 1909. 99x75 cm. Private collection. 

1909 Still Life. The National Gallery Oslo (1) (700x513, 206Kb)

Still Life (Still Life). 1909 National Gallery, Oslo, Norway. 

1909 Yellow-black swimsuit

Yellow and black swimsuit. 1909 Oil on canvas. Museum of the group "Bridge", Berlin. 

1909 Zwei Frauenakte im zimmer. Ludwig Museum, Cologne (700x507, 186Kb)

Two naked in the room (Zwei Frauenakte im zimmer). 1909 Oil on canvas. 49.5x65.5 cm. 
Ludwig Museum, Cologne. 

1909 Two Girls. X m 70 x 80 cm ES (700x597, 427Kb)

Two girls (Two Girls). 1909 Oil on canvas. 70x80 cm. Private collection. 

1909 Zwei M

Two girls (Zwei Mädchen). 1909 Germanic National Museum, Nuremberg. 
 
Herman Max Pekhstein (1881-1955) - expressionist, artist of the berlin Session.

Nude 1909-1917 Canvas, oil. 50.3x65.4 cm. Sotheby's Auction, 2016

1909 Reclining Nude with a Cat

Reclining nude with a cat. 1909 

1909 Nude National Gal Washington BOOM AQU 33.8 x 43.9 cm (700x537, 94Kb)

Reclining nude with a cat. 1909 Brown paper, ink, watercolor. 34.9x46.7 cm. 
Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), New York.
 
1909 Reclining Nude with Cat. Boom Mascara Akv 34.9 x 46.7 cm. MOMA (700x522, 118Kb)

Nude 1909 Brown paper, watercolor. 33.8x43.9 cm. 
National Gallery of Art, Washington. 

1909 In the forest near Moritzburg (700x630, 240Kb)

1909 House on the Curonian Spit (House on the Kuhrische Nehrung) Thyssen-Born (700x688, 325Kb)

House on the Curonian Spit (House on the Kuhrische Nehrung). 1909 
Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid. 

Herman Max Pekhstein (1881-1955) - expressionist, artist of the berlin Session.

Lagoon. 1909 Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid. 

1909 Pier in Nida with fishing boats »1 (700x696, 292Kb)

Pier in Nida with fishing boats. 1909 
1909 Dance Two Dancers (700x547, 149Kb)

Dance. Two dancers. 1909.
1909 Dancing couple from Transylvania. Lithograph (1) MOMA (504x700, 114Kb)

dancing couple from Transylvania. 1909 Lithograph. 
Museum of Contemporary Art (MOMA), New York.


Having moved to Berlin, Max Pechstein, before the war, became quite widely known. In 1910 he created his first lithographs and engravings. His woodcuts are marked by a striving for simplification, typical of the artists of the Most group (Fisherman’s Head, 1911, Institute of the Arts, Chicago). His painting, by contrast, is more sensitive to French influences. Much less sharp and often preserves the unity of the plot, it is inherent in a soft composition and less arbitrary color, close to the color of the Fauves. At the same time, Pechstein is close to his associates in a group in the selection of plots and stylistics (“On the Lake”, 1910, the Museum of the “Most” group, Berlin). 
 
Conversation (Conversation). 1910 National Gallery of New South Wales. 
Sydney, Australia. 
1910 BILDNIS CHARLOTTE CUHRT Х m 68.8 x 33.4 inches (370x700, 83Kb)

Portrait of Charlotte Kurt (Bildnis Charlotte Cuhrt). 1910 Oil on canvas. 175x85 cm. 
The painting was sold at the Ketterer Kunst auction in Munich, 2015 for € 825,000 / $ 948,749. 

1910 BILDNIS CHARLOTTE CUHRT Х m 68.8 x 33.4 Detail (700x579, 116Kb)

Portrait of Charlotte Kurt (Bildnis Charlotte Cuhrt). Fragment. 1910 Oil on canvas. 175x85 cm. 
The painting was sold at the Ketterer Kunst auction in Munich, 2015 for € 825,000 / $ 948,749. 
1910 The Girl With the Red Fan

Girl with a red fan. 1910
1910 Great Indian

Big indian 1910 
1910 Индианка (Индеец) и женщина» 82.6x66.4 (568x700, 198Kb)

Indian and woman. 1910 Oil on canvas. 82.6 x 66.4 cm. 
St. Louis Art Museum, Missouri, USA. 
1910 Weib mit Inder auf Teppich (Vorderseite), Fr

Woman with Indian and fruits on the carpet (Weib mit Inder auf Teppich, Früchte II). 1910 Oil on canvas. 71.5x82.5 cm. 
The painting was sold at Ketterer Kunst auction in Munich, 2011 for € 3,480,000 / $ 4.001,999. 
1910 Bathers. х м 70.4 х 80.6 см Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, США (700x611, 162Kb)

Bathers (Bathers). 1910 Oil on canvas. 70.4 x 80.6 cm. 
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. Richmond, USA. 
1910 На берегу озера. Х м 70х80 см. Берлин, музей группы «Мост». (700x525, 208Kb)

On the shore of the lake. 1910 Oil on canvas. 70x80 cm. Museum of the Most group, Berlin. 
NEW 1910 Girl in the Woods. Height 79 х 69 cm Kunstsammlungen Zwickau (606x700, 171Kb)

Girl in the forest (Girl in the Woods). 1910 Oil on canvas. 79x69 cm. Zwickau Art Gallery - 
Max Pechstein Museum, Germany.
1910 Лошадиная ярмарка Морицбурге. 70 x 81 cm Тиссен-Борнем (700x610, 258Kb)

Horse Fair in Moritzburg. 1910 Oil on canvas. 70x81 cm. Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid. 
1910 Луг в Морицбурге» 1910 г. (700x619, 173Kb)

Meadow in Moritzburg. 1910 



The Berlin Secession Building at Kurfürstendamm 208, which currently houses the Kurfürstendamm Theater. Photo 1925

The Berlin Secession Building at Kurfürstendamm 208, which currently houses 
the Kurfürstendamm Theater. Photo 1925


In 1910, Max Pechstein together with Franz Marc, August Macke, Wassily Kandinsky, Erich Heckel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff and Ernst Kirchner founded the New Secession group in Berlin and Pechstein unanimously elected its chairman. His associates in the “Most” group, by the fact that he violated their agreement to be displayed only together, excluded him from the group. This, however, did not lead to a complete rupture — he continued to communicate with Erich Heckel and Ernst Kirchner. A new group gathered part of the old Berlin Secession with the artists of the “Bridge” from Dresden.
 
Expressionist artist Emil Nolde (1867-1956), expelled from the old Berlin Secession for exhibiting the heretical “Trinity Day” (1909) here in Berlin and the conflict for leadership with former chairman Max Lieberman, did not have any real interaction with the artists new union. In December 1911, Nolde was proposed as the new chairman of the New Secession against the current Max Pechstein (both hated each other since the days of Most in Dresden). Nolde won the election, but immediately after that Pechstein and all the old members of the Most group withdrew their membership and resigned, thereby finally confirming the end of the Most group. I must say that Nolde later took revenge on Max Pechstein. In October 1933, with the Nazis who had come to power, Nolde condemned him as a Jew, although Pechstein was no such person.

ФОТО Нольде - 1909 Троицын день (Сошествие Св. Духа) (700x565, 80Kb)

Emil Nolde (1867-1956). Trinity Day (Descent of the Holy Spirit). 1909 Oil on canvas. 87x107 cm. 
Berlin State Museums, New National Gallery, Berlin. 

ФОТО NEW Выставка Берлинского Сецессиона, 1910 (700x521, 133Kb)

Max Pechstein. Poster exhibition of artists rejected by the Berlin Secession, and organized by the New Berlin Secession. Berlin, May 15 - July 15, 1910
 

1910 Vase with Oranges (695x700, 168Kb)

Vase with oranges. 1910 A 
1910 Woman in a black hat (2) (608x700, 157Kb)

woman in a black hat. 1910 A 
1910 The Woman in the Mask (606x700, 197Kb)

woman in a mask. 1910 The 
1910 The boy at the sofa (700x616, 123Kb)

boy at the sofa. 1910

Every summer, the members of the “Most” group went to the Moritzburg lakes for sketches, lived in the middle of the forest in the building of the old brewery, and spent the whole day swimming naked with the models. And arriving in Dresden, preparing for winter exhibitions. A naked body in non-classical postures and angles, deliberately imperfect beauty, annoying frankness, inherentness in a poster or engraving - all these finds of expressionists should have caused the viewer to have an uncontrollable primal sense of their own bestial origin. Scary, but true. The participants of the “Bridge”, freeing their own bodies and watching others, searched for their way to salvation. The summer colony of bridgemen existed only a few years - in 1911 they would gradually move to Berlin. 

1910 Bathers in Moritzburg. Х m 70х80 cm. Wilhelm Lembruck Museum, Duisburg (700x617, 266Kb)

Bathers in Moritzburg. 1910 Oil on canvas. 70 x 80 cm
Wilhelm Lembruck Museum, Duisburg, Germany. 

1910 Four naked in the landscape (in nature) (700x627, 137Kb)

Four nudes in the landscape. 1910 

Expressionist erotic, landscapes and portraits by Herman Max Pekhstein - artist of the berlin Session

Summer (Sommer). 1910. 

1910 Forest Scene - Xm 68 x 79.5 cm Emergency (700x597, 202Kb)

Forest Scene. 1910 Oil on canvas. 68x79,5 cm. Private collection.


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