Published: July 7, 2012


GRAPHICS (Greek graphike, from grapho - write, draw, Eng. Graphic art, fr. Art graphique, it. Graphik) - kind of pictorial space (plastic) arts. As well as painting, was due to the image on the plane: a drawing or a print applied, usually on a sheet of paper (the choice basically comes down to its various classes, is sometimes used cardboard, in ancient times - the papyrus, parchment). G. The product is usually easier to move than the picture, it is less than the format (although there may be graphic experiments on giant sheets of paper, even on the facades of houses - so-called. Supergraphics), but more often, and organically perceived image thumbnails or relatively small sheets. D. is usually not fixed forever on k.-l. architectural basis: graphic (paper) sheets are always easily portable, designed for exhibitions, for placement in the interior. There easel graphics: drawing, which has no application purpose, printmaking, splint - individual sheets that you can hang on the walls, lay out for display in the windows, collected in folders and have no specific functions do not bear. In terms of content easel G. has no thematic restrictions, while the book was due to the terms of images, stories or poetic associations that are relevant to the product literature, this edition. G. Book as a system of formation of artistic design (the book) includes the text (handwritten or printed word) and graphic elements comprising a unified whole (illustrations, vignettes, screensavers, initials, ornamental frames, dissecting the text of bands, cartouches, graphic design elements and the title avantitula , binding or cover and dust jacket). Book G. akin to magazine and newspaper in the same formal and substantive grounds (link to the graphic arts industry, the unity of body art magazine or a newspaper, subject to the binding of the published materials). In this specific book and periodicals (children's book, a book of fairy tales, historical novels, poems, etc., for children, youth, satire, entertainment, technical journals, educational literature - primers, etc.) determines the nature of the book and magazine-newspaper G., in which there are such artistic phenomena, as an illustration in publications for children, political and domestic cartoons, etc. One option is a miniature portrait G. manuscript in the manuscript, which existed before the invention of printing, and (while) in parallel with .

Allocated for specific purposes as completely separate areas: application, graphics, or industrial ("promgrafika" - an artistic design of commercial, postal, monetary symbols, emblems, labels, product packaging, etc.), bookplate, a poster, in turn, subject to internal classification by genre, type, target setting (a satirical, advertising, educational, etc.), methods of reproduction: the publishing (or typographic) and of small circulation (reproducible method of screen printing, lithography and linocut).
The main material used in the art, G., - paper - determines the classical role of a white background on which a substantial gain expressiveness of line, the spot, while a monochrome image (black and gray tones) on a contrasting white background creates a particular aesthetic system that allows in a sense, to characterize the art of G. "black and white", which does not exclude the rich polychrome or Highlighter planes, depending on the creative vision of the artist and his choice of materials (colored paper, colored pencils, watercolor, fotoslayd, etc.) . All the same color in G, in contrast to the painting with primary colors to it, often plays a supporting role, whereas the main means of expression are line, bar, contour, spot and background sheet is actively involved in shaping the graphic composition.

By way of performance and capabilities of the playback (reproduction) differ in a unique graphic work and printing H.

G. Unique - drawing (pencil or colored pencils, felt-tip pen, charcoal, sauce, chalk, crayons - pastel, ink - brush or pen, etc.), watercolor, gouache, monotype, collage, appliqu?, photomontage and other methods create a composition using various materials, which give the product as a result of a graphic as a single, unique model.

G. Print allows you to get some circulation of relatively equal, identical works of art - prints from the board, with metal plates, with a stone, a sheet of linoleum or other basis, which caused the corresponding figure (mirrored with respect to the reprint). Depending on the material, the technical method of processing (engraving) - Mechanical (carving, scratching) or chemical (etching), the type of "deep", "high" or "flat" printing are different species ("Technology") print r . as wood engraving (woodcut), linocut, zincography, lithography, engraving on cardboard, a pen engraved on copper, etching, mezzotint, aquatint, drypoint, and others, acting sometimes in its pure form, sometimes as mixed media in black and white and in color variants. A further enrichment of the printed proofs are G. (state), fixing the stages of the leaf, and drawings in his fields (remarks).

Genres H. repeat the main genres of painting, but not literally, landscape (including travel sketches), portrait (including a sketch from nature) in more often than more common in art history, household and other genres associated with the creation of large multi-figured compositions . To a certain extent a particular genre of graphics is a caricature (a satirical drawing, cartoon), including a poster and newsprint G. More than in other types of fine art, there are a series of G., cycles, united by a common theme, title, consistently revealing the creative idea udozhnika .

New type of occurrence, the existence of "production" along with the traditional - hand-drawn or printed, but somehow arising under the hand of the artist - is computer graphics, rhythms, combinations of which figured in electronic systems are formed and reproduced on the screen or printed in the printer.
Particular, forms an independent branch of the letter G. (epigraphy, art, fonts, calligraphy), which had a particularly great artistic value in the aesthetic systems of antiquity and the East (Arabic script, Chinese and

Japanese characters, fonts, Indian, Armenian, Georgian alphabets, etc.) in the allocated a special area of ​​modern graphic design.

Concise, sharply pointed expression of thoughts and feelings in the works of H. and its ability to quickly and efficiently respond to events, to develop a selected topic in the cycles, the series of images, ease of reproduction of the printed graphic sheets have allowed G. to 14-16 cc. occupy a prominent place in public life, to perform a wide range of informational, promotional and satirical features.

By JenKiriakos,  


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