Published: July 22, 2012


(it. miniatura, from an armor., minium - cinnabar, minium with which in the ancient time allocated capital letters, prompts and the first lines of heads in hand-written rolls and codes) - work of the fine arts, differing in the small size and a special subtlety of equipment of execution. Originally - the illustration of the manuscript executed by hand, and also the initials and prompts.

Art language of the MINIATURE is in many respects connected with its place in ensemble book or arts and crafts. The MINIATURE first of all is called art of an ornament and an illustration of hand-written books. In blossoming of a book MINIATURE - the Middle Ages - the copyist quite often was also a miniature painter. Work on an illustration of the hand-written book is called also illyuminirovaniy - in this term application in richly issued codes of sheet gold is reflected. In the countries of the Muslim East and India the leaf with a miniature could exist and as the independent work connected with poetic texts.

The special section of the MINIATURE is made by the picturesque portraits which emergence in Europe belongs to l6 of century They were widespread, carried out memorial functions and were forced out in sulfurs. 19 century photo cheaper and allowing repetitions. MINIATURES on enamel in Russia represent icons of 17-19 centuries, portraits of 18 century. The M version - painting on small varnish products (see. Varnishes, Russian art varnishes), popular and today. A special version is the sculptural MINIATURE - polnoobjemny or relief images from a bone, metal, firm breeds of a tree and a stone etc. Sm. Gliptik, the Cameo, the Entail, Gemma, the Netsuke.

By JenKiriakos,  


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