Published: May 6, 2019

The history of the portrait in painting

The development of the portrait genre is influenced by two trends: the development of ideas about the significance of the human personality, the development of the laws of painting, perspectives, the invention of colors, etc.

Ancient portrait.

The oldest known attempt to portray a human face is 27 thousand years old.It is found in the cave Villoner."Portrait" is made with chalk.The horizontal lines of the eyes and the mouth are drawn, and a vertical line indicating the nose.

The history of the portrait in painting

Early samples of the easel portrait - Roman portraits, performing the function of funerary masks - Fayum portraits.They were created from nature, carrying in themselves a pronounced similarity with a particular person, and in later models - specific spirituality.

The history of the portrait in painting

The masters of the Byzantine and Western Roman empires portray their models in general, the portraits of various emperors are almost indistinguishable.

The history of the portrait in painting

Portraits are often found in antique coins and medals.

Portrait of the Middle Ages.

During the Middle Ages, the artist, limited to strict church canons, rarely turned to a portrait.

Although, at the same time, artists are beginning to give a little holy features of the faces of real people.

One of the first such works in which the beginning of the development of a realistic portrait can be seen is the portrait of Enrico Scrovegni by Giotto on the walls of the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, 1304-1306.

The history of the portrait in painting
Giotto

The portrait appears in a miniature book, especially in the portraits of customers who brought books.

Begins to develop and self-portrait.

The history of the portrait in painting
Hildegarde Bingen

Little by little, the portrait begins to penetrate easel painting.One of the first examples of the easel portrait of this period is the "Portrait of John the Good" (c. 1349).

The history of the portrait in painting
"Portrait of John the Good"

In the territories of the East.

Chinese portrait dates back to 1000 BC.erHe has the features of brightly individualized secular portraits.

The history of the portrait in painting
Unknown artist."Portrait of a Buddhist Monk Uchzhun Shifan"

The portraits of the Japanese are also psychological.

The history of the portrait in painting
"Portrait of Minamoto but Yoritomo"

In Peruvian culture of the Moika Indians (1st-8th centuries) there were portraits showing the anatomical features of people, their social status.

 

Portrait of 14-15 centuries.

In the era of rebirth, man began to be perceived as the center of the world, the influence of religion weakened.Great value acquired external beauty, the harmony between a strong spirit and body.

The first portraits had the influence of antique coins and medals, and therefore often depict the model in profile.Time passed before the faces in the portraits began to be depicted in a face or three-quarters.

Another important component of portrait development is the emergence of an oil painting technique that allowed the letter to become more subtle and psychological.

Sometimes the artist idealized the model, but at the same time they certainly tried to comprehend its essence.Portrayed were often depicted not on a conditional background in the interior or landscape, often alongside fictional (mythological and gospel) characters.

The history of the portrait in painting
Piero della Francesca, "Portrait of the Duke Federigo Montefeltro"

The means of artistic expression are updated (aerial perspective by Leonardo da Vinci, Titian's coloristic discoveries).

The history of the portrait in painting

Titian, "Isabella of Portugal, mother of Philip I"


The history of the portrait in painting
Leonardo Da Vinci, Mona Lisa

By the middle of the 15th century, the portrayed person became an integral part of the universe in his paintings - for this, detailed prescription of the environment around him, the slightest wrinkles on his face were used.

The history of the portrait in painting

Jan van Eyck


The history of the portrait in painting
Robert Kampen."Portrait of a Fat Man"
The history of the portrait in painting

Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait

The history of the portrait in painting

Hans Holbein the Younger

16th century portrait.

It shows the anxiety and drama of the era.Mannerism.

The history of the portrait in painting
El Greco."Portrait of an Elderly Caballero"

Portrait of the 17th century.

In the 17th century, portraits of people engaged in mundane affairs appear.Realism.

The history of the portrait in painting
Rembrandt"Anatomy lesson of Dr. Tulpa"

Appears a class portrait.

The history of the portrait in painting
Diego Velazquez."Portrait of the Dwarf Don Sebastien Morra"

The history of the portrait in painting
Franz Hals."Gypsy"

Increased interest in self-comprehension contributes to the development of self-portrait.

The history of the portrait in painting
Rembrandt, "Self-Portrait"

The aristocratic portrait continues to evolve.

The history of the portrait in painting
Anthony van Dyck."Equestrian Portrait of Charles I"
The history of the portrait in painting
Diego Velazquez

The composition of many portraits of this period is based on movement, with the expressiveness of the gesture of the model being of great importance.Baroque.

The history of the portrait in painting
Rembrandt, "Night Watch"

At the same time, negative trends in the development of the portrait genre are outlined.The customer requires flattery from the artist.In the works appears sugary sentimentality, cold theatricality, idealization.Classicism.

The history of the portrait in painting
Pierre Minyar

18th century portrait.

France sets the tone for the whole world; ceremonial court portraits with "doll faces" are now everywhere.Rococo.

The history of the portrait in painting
Nattier."Portrait of the Duchess of Orleans in the image of Hebe"

But towards the end of the 18th century, a social portrait appears in the Enlightenment.Pastels are developing.

The history of the portrait in painting
Hogarth
The history of the portrait in painting
Hogarth
The history of the portrait in painting
Jean-Baptiste Chardin."Self-portrait", pastel.
The history of the portrait in painting
Francisco Goya

The Russian empire declares itself in world art by first-class painters - this is Levitsky, Borovikovsky.In their works, social characteristics, psychological analysis, rich internal emotions are manifested.

The history of the portrait in painting
Levitsky
The history of the portrait in painting
Borovikovsky."Catherine II on a walk in Tsarskoselsky Park"

In the second half of the 18th century, a portrait made by cheaper means (engraving, watercolor, pencil) became widespread.In addition, the portrait miniature flourishes.

The history of the portrait in painting
Bacchante.Miniature portrait by Jacques Augustine, 1799. Bone, watercolor, gouache

This situation with a private portrait as a souvenir is preserved until the 1850s, when a photograph appears accessible to virtually all segments of society.

 

19th century portrait.

The development of the portrait in the 19th century was predetermined by the Great French Revolution.Romanticism.

The history of the portrait in painting
David."Napoleon on the Saint-Bernard Pass"

The portrait of the early 19th century is often stern and cold.

The history of the portrait in painting
Jacques-Louis, "The Dutch Envoy in Paris, Jacobus Blauw"

By the middle of the century, a new standard of the ceremonial custom portrait is being formed.

The history of the portrait in painting
Winterhalter

From the middle of the 19th century, a portrait of realism appears.

The history of the portrait in painting
Ivan Kramskoy."Self-portrait"

Impressionism.


The artists in the portrait refused the credibility of the photograph left (which began to develop widely), focused on the inconstancy of man and the environment.

The history of the portrait in painting

Edouard Manet, "The Woman in Front of the Mirror"








The history of the portrait in painting
Pierre Agyst Renoir, "Dance in Bougival"

There are monumental images.

The history of the portrait in painting
Paul Cezanne."Portrait of Madame Cezanne"
The history of the portrait in painting
Van Gogh."Portrait of Dr. Ray"

The portrait clearly reflects the problems of the moral and spiritual life of modern man.Goya, who created the group "Portrait of the Family of Charles IV", was a work ordered as a ceremonial portrait, and as a result reflected the outrage of the ruling dynasty.

The history of the portrait in painting
Goya, "Portrait of the Family of Charles IV"

There is also a satirical portrait.

The history of the portrait in painting
Honore Daumier

The modernist style gives the portrait a laconic sharpening, sometimes endowing the model with features of the grotesque.

The history of the portrait in painting
Toulouse-Lautrec, "La Gulay with two friends in Moulin Rouge"
The history of the portrait in painting
Alphonse Mucha

Salon parade portrait flourishes.The ease of a brush and a certain superficiality is peculiar to the works of artists of this genre.

The history of the portrait in painting
Giovanni Boldini

Portrait in the 20th century.

In the 20th century there are works that do not convey the real look of the model.

The history of the portrait in painting
Modigliani."Portrait of Jeanne Hebutern in a Yellow Sweater"
The history of the portrait in painting
Juan Gris."Portrait of Picasso"

The search for new realistic means continues.

The history of the portrait in painting
Max Ernst, "All Friends Together"

But many artists of this time, such as Andy Warhol, Alex Katz and Chuck Close, make the human face the main thing in their works.

The history of the portrait in painting
Andy Warhol, "Merlin Munro"

This is Pop Art.

That's probably all about the portrait.Enjoy your creativity!



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Nika    October 2, 2019 [!]


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